Debts and Credit – Bad Checks – Wyoming
Related Wyoming Legal Forms
Note: This summary is not intended to be an all inclusive summary of the law of bad checks, but does contain basic and other provisions.
TITLE 1; CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE
CHAPTER 1; GENERAL PROVISIONS AS TO CIVIL ACTIONS
1-1-115 Civil liability for unpaid checks.
(a) Any person who issues a check which is not paid because the check has been dishonored for any reason has thirty (30) days following the date of a written demand mailed to the drawer of the check by United States postal service certificate of mailing at the address shown on the check or his last known address or personally served pursuant to the Wyoming Rules of Civil Procedure, to pay to the holder of the check the amount of the check and a collection fee not to exceed thirty dollars ($30.00). The demand shall state that the drawer is required to pay the value of the check and the collection fee demanded and shall state the collection fee provided for in this section.
(b) Any person who fails to pay the amount of the check and the collection fee as set forth in subsection (a) of this section within thirty (30) days following the date of a written demand, mailed to or served on the drawer in accordance with subsection (a) of this section, is liable to the holder of the check for three (3) times the amount of the check, but in no case less than one hundred dollars ($100.00), a collection fee of thirty dollars ($30.00), and court costs.
(c) In extraordinary cases, including cases in which the court determines that the party who wrote the check has raised dilatory or bad faith defenses, the court may award the prevailing party reasonable attorney fees.
(d) Nothing in this section shall prevent the criminal prosecution of the person who issues the check. However, any payment made by the defendant to a victim pursuant to an order for restitution entered in a criminal case pursuant to W.S. 7-9-101 through 7-9-112 or 6-3-704(b), shall be set off against any judgment in favor of the victim in a civil action brought under this section arising out of the same facts or event.
(e) A cause of action under this section may be brought in small claims court, if the amount of the demand does not exceed the jurisdiction of that court, or in any other appropriate court.
(f) As used in this section, “check,” “drawee,” “drawer” and “issue” have the same meaning as defined in W.S. 6-3-701.
(a) As used in this article:
(i) “Check” means a written unconditional order to pay a sum certain in money drawn on a bank payable on demand and signed by the drawer;
(ii) “Knowingly issues” means issuing a check to obtain property or to pay a debt with intent to defraud or deceive any other person;
(iii) “Drawee” means the bank or purported bank upon which a check is drawn;
(iv) “Drawer” means a person either real or fictitious whose name appears on a check as the primary obligor whether the actual signature is that of himself or of a person authorized to draw the check in his behalf;
(v) “Insufficient funds” means when the drawer issues a check from the drawee and has no checking account with the drawee or has funds or credit in a checking account with the drawee in an amount less than the amount of the check plus the amount of all other checks outstanding at the time of issuance. A check dishonored for “no account”, “account closed” or “nonsufficient funds” shall also be deemed to be dishonored for “insufficient funds”;
(vi) “Issue” means make, draw, deliver or pass a check.
6-3-702. Fraud by check; penalties.
(a) Any person who knowingly issues a check which is not paid because the drawer has insufficient funds or credit with the drawee has issued a fraudulent check and commits fraud by check.
(b) Fraud by check is:
(i) A misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment for not more than six (6) months, a fine of not more than seven hundred fifty dollars ($750.00), or both, if the fraudulent check was for a sum of less than one thousand dollars ($1,000.00); or
(ii) Repealed by Laws 1984, ch. 44, § 3.
(iii) A felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than ten (10) years, a fine of not more than ten thousand dollars ($10,000.00), or both, if the fraudulent check was for the sum of one thousand dollars ($1,000.00) or more, or if the offender is convicted of fraud by check involving two (2) or more checks issued within any sixty (60) day period in the state of Wyoming totaling one thousand dollars ($1,000.00) or more in the aggregate.
(c) Renumbered as 7-9-112 by Laws 1987, ch. 157, § 3.
6-3-703. Prima facie evidence of intent that check not to be paid; evidence of knowledge of account balance.
(a) Any of the following is prima facie evidence that the person at the time he issued the check or other order for the payment of money intended that it should not be paid:
(i) Proof that at the time of issuance he did not have an account with the drawee;
(ii) Proof that at the time of issuance he did not have sufficient funds with the drawee and that he failed to pay the check or other order within five (5) days after receiving notice of nonpayment or dishonor, personally given or sent to the address shown on the check or other order; or
(iii) Proof that when presentment was made in a reasonable time the issuer did not have sufficient funds with the drawee and he failed to pay the check or other order within five (5) days after receiving notice of nonpayment or dishonor, personally given or sent to the address shown on the check or other order.
(b) Proof the drawer opened an account with the drawee on a certain date shall be considered evidence of the drawer’s knowledge of the account balance on that date.
6-3-704. Acquirer of right to check with insufficient funds may file complaint; deferred prosecution or probation and restitution on checks.
(a) Any person, having acquired rights with respect to a check which is not paid because the drawer has insufficient funds, may file a complaint under this act whether or not he is the payee, holder or bearer of the check.
(b) If deferred prosecution or probation is ordered, the court as a condition of supervision shall require the defendant to make restitution in an amount not to exceed twice the amount of the dishonored check on all checks issued by the defendant which are unpaid as of the date of commencement of the supervision in addition to other terms and conditions appropriate for the treatment or rehabilitation of the defendant.
6-3-705. Liability of drawee for release of information to payee, holder or official; liability of person committing fraud to holder.
(a) A drawee is not civilly or criminally liable for releasing the following information relating to the drawer’s account to any payee or holder of a check that has been dishonored for insufficient funds, upon the written request of any payee or holder:
(i) The status of the account, and whether the drawer had sufficient funds or credit with the drawee at the time the check was issued or presented for payment; and
(ii) The current home and business addresses and telephone numbers of the drawer.
(b) A drawee is not civilly or criminally liable for releasing the following information relating to the drawer’s account to any law enforcement or prosecuting official or agent thereof who first certifies in writing that he is investigating a complaint against the drawer under this section:
(i) Documents relating to the opening of the account by the drawer;
(ii) Correspondence between the drawer and the drawee relating to the status of the account;
(iii) Periodic statements delivered to the drawer by the drawee for the two (2) periods prior to and subsequent to the issuance of any check which is the subject of such investigation;
(iv) The current home and business addresses and telephone numbers of the drawer; and
(v) Copies of other documents showing examples of signatures of the drawer.
(c) Any person who commits fraud by check is liable to the holder of the check for the sum of the check plus interest, costs of collection and reasonable collection fees.
6-3-706. Bank not liable for release of information on drawer’s account after warrant issued.
After a warrant has been issued against a drawer, a bank is not civilly or criminally liable for releasing information relating to the drawer’s account to a sheriff, deputy sheriff, under sheriff, police officer, prosecuting attorney, assistant prosecuting attorney, deputy prosecuting attorney or authorized investigator or detective for a prosecuting attorney, sheriff’s office or police department investigating or prosecuting a charge under this article.